Semantics was a part away from linguistics which education on definition inside the vocabulary. Quickly, semantics concerns the analysis of definition. There clearly was relatives certainly one of a word additionally the almost silversingles every other conditions inside the semantics. It’s entitled meaning family members. Essentially, the main regarding meaning relation include five major sphere, including synonymy, antonymy, polisemy, and you will hyponymy. Synonymy questions the sameness out-of meaning, when you’re antonymy inquiries this new oppositeness out of definition. The focus is on the antonymy which has a sense of family members, including synonymy. Feel is the concept of phrase, particularly the abstract definition where it’s always produced from definition of the newest lexical items which are located in dictionaries.
In cases like this, there is no particularly sheer needs making a standard of something to say with what grade they should be set
Antonymy is oppositeness from definition between a keyword as well as the most other phrase otherwise one of conditions in identical part of message, such good-bad (adjective-adjective) and you will punctual-slower (adverb-adverb). Considering Lyons () just who states you to definitely antonymy discusses the newest family relations between lexical facts whose definitions stand in opposition to one another and is will described as the contrary of synonymy. There are two affairs that is discuss right here ; about three types of antonymy and you can disease inside recognize the sort of antonymy.
- Gradable Antonymy
You will find three features regarding gradable antonymy
This type means a thing that should be measured and you can in contrast to something else entirely. Including, in the event the a trailer can work with 260 kilometres/hour together with most other one could work with two hundred kilometer/hour, the original vehicle is fast and the most other one is slow. This form ‘s the commonest types of antonymy. Gradable antonymy deals with the degree of conditions, it means that there is anything/things ranging from. As an example, the only can tell now is not gorgeous, it could indicate now is not cool. You will find scale otherwise area can be found between sensuous and cool, it’s loving. Others examples of gradable antonymy are provided below :
To begin with, given that label ways, he or she is gradable. The latest people in moobs differ when it comes to knowledge. It is related to the rationale a lot more than. If the some thing isn’t A beneficial, it is not merely B, it can be C or D or Age otherwise an such like. It may just be “so-so” or “average”. To make them become super, they are modified by “very”. One thing may be very gorgeous or very cold. And so they may have comparative and superlative grade. Both the fresh new intermediate amount are lexicalized. They may be indicated by the independent terminology instead of with the addition of modifiers. Such as, the term toward dimensions that’s neither larger nor small are typical. And you may among them extremes out of heat beautiful and you will cold, there are warm and you can chill, and that function a pair of antonyms on their own, and will has actually a deeper intermediate name lukewarm.
2nd, it antonymy is rated up against more norms. There isn’t any absolute criterion which we could possibly state things is actually damp otherwise deceased, long otherwise short, small or big. Brand new standard varies on object described. A large ant is clearly far smaller than a little jet. A microwave is actually monster of the standard of microorganism.
The 3rd, very often a person is designated and also the most other unmarked regarding gradable antonymy. The fresh unmarked associate is far more natural versus marked one to and you may it is found in issues out of knowledge. Eg, we inquire “How old are you currently?” rather than” Exactly how younger will you be? “; “Just how long is it?” in the place of “Exactly how small was it’?” Ergo dated and you can a lot of time are definitely the unmarked people in old/more youthful and you will a lot of time/brief. Of antonymous few beautiful/cooler, gorgeous are une manner, large was unmarked and you may short designated; high was unmarked and you will quick unmarked.